Skip to Main Content

Citing sources in APA style 7th ed.

Crediting sources and formatting references according to the style of the American Psychological Association (APA). Based on the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the APA.

Web page / Website

Radboudumc & Werkgroep Bewegingsstoornissen van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Neurologie. (n.d.). Misverstanden over parkinson. ParkinsonNet.


Radboudumc & Werkgroep Bewegingsstoornissen van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Neurologie. (n.d.). Misverstanden over parkinson. ParkinsonNet. Retrieved April 13, 2022, from

  • If there is no year, use (n.d.), meaning "no date".
  • In the example above, the date 11 April 2017 can be deduced from the content of the web page, but it is not stated literally anywhere.
  • The personal or institutional author of a webpage may also be located under an "About us" heading, as is the case in this example.
  • This webpage has not been updated since publication, it is still the same number of 200 misunderstandings and not 201 or 199, so there is no need to add a retrieval date per se.
  • When in doubt whether a webpage with n.d. has been updated since publication, mention a retrieval date.

If you refer to a complete website, it is sufficient to mention the URL in text without making an entry in the reference list.

On the website of The Dutch Association of Psychologists ( . . .


Eisinga, R. N., Scheepers, P. L. H., Kraaykamp, G. L. M., & Thijs, P. (2012). Religion in Dutch Society 2011-2012 - SOCON 2011-2012 [Data set and code book]. DANS.

  • If there is no DOI, but you do have an URL, end with this URL.

Film on YouTube

The general format is:

Author, A. A. [nickname]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video]. YouTube. https://xxxx


Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). The Haunting Tape 14 (ghost caught on video) [Video]. YouTube.

  • If there is only a nickname, put the nickname in the author's position. Without brackets.


American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD].

Brown, L. S. (Guest Expert), & Carlson, J. (Host). (2005). Working with women survivors of trauma and abuse [DVD]. American Psychological Association.

Psychological test

For references to psychological tests, you can best follow the forms for printed or electronic books and reports..


Arrindell, W. A., Groot, P. M., & Walburg, J. A. (1984). Handleiding Schaal voor Interpersoonlijk Gedrag (SIG), deel I. Swets & Zeitlinger.

Vegt, E. R., & Metselaar, E. E. (2011). Adaptieve Digitale Intelligentie Test.

  • ​Use capitals in the name of the test.
  • When a manual is available cite the manual and not the test itself.
  • You don't have to include abbreviations in the reference of the test itself. You can introduce abbreviations in text, for example:
    We used the Adaptieve Digitale Intelligentie Test (ADIT) of Vegt and Metselaar (2011) . . .  In subsequent citations in text you can then use the abbreviation ADIT.

Preprints in preprint archives

Informally published or self-archived works in preprint archives like ArXiv, bioRxiv, PsyArXiv, SocArXiv.
Preprint versions normally precede formal peer review and publication in a peer-reviewed journal.


Tsfasman, M., Philippsen, A., Mazzola, C., Thill, S., Sciutti, A., & Nagai, Y. (2022). The world seems different in a social context: A neural network analysis of human experimental data. arXiv.

Fabio, C., Salemme, R., Koun, E., Farnè, A., & Miller, L. E. (2021). Alpha oscillations are involved in localizing touch on hand-held tools. bioRxiv.

  • Check and update your references prior to publication of your own work, and refer to the final published version of sources when possible.

Working paper, individual author(s)

Dave, D. M., Liang, Y., Pesko, M. F., Phillips, S., & Sabia, J. J. (2022). Have recreational marijuana laws undermined public health progress on adult tobacco use? (NBER Working Paper No. 29706). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Social media posts: Twitter, Facebook

Rijksmuseum [@rijksmuseum]. (2020, October 31). Applications for our Fellowship Programme, starting September 2021, are now live [Video attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Rijksmuseum (2020, October 25). Studies laten zien dat de meeste museumbezoekers slechts een paar seconden naar een werk kijken [Image attached]. Facebook.

  • Include the text of a social media post up to the first 20 words. Do not alter the spelling and capitalization. Retain hashtags and links. Replicate emojis, if possible.

Blog post

Anderson, R. (2022, March 3). Libraries and the contested terrain of "neutrality". The Scholarly Kitchen.

  • Italicize the name of the blog, the same as you would a journal title.