In the most simple case you cite publications with only one author. You can place these citations in your text in the following ways:
Jones (2021, p. 91) showed that . . .
In research on life styles (Jones, 2021, p. 91) . . .
In 2021 Jones (p. 91) stated that . . .
The last manner is not used frequently.
Each time you cite, you mention both authors. You use "and" between the two names, if they are part of the narrative. If they are cited within parentheses, you use an ampersand ("&") between them.
Hogenaar and Werkendam (2021) published an advice . . .
In a recently published advice (Hogenaar & Werkendam, 2021) . . .
The first time and in subsequent citations you mention only the name of the first author followed by et al. (this means et alii; et without period and al. with period).
. . . was shown (Sattler et al., 2021, p. 123).
. . . these conclusions (Sattler et al., 2021, p. 123).
This must not lead to confusion with other sources. Should that be the case, mention as many names as is necessary to avoid confusion.
Sometimes a publication has no personal author but an organization as author. Then you mention the organization as the author.
In the final report (Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau, 2021, p. 37) . . .
You may use familiar abbreviations of organization names. The rule is: explain the abbreviation the first time you cite the publication of this organization, in subsequent citations you can use the abbreviation. In the list of references the complete name is used.
The Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid (WRR, 2021) published a study . . .
(Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid [WRR], 2021)
. . . as can be read in the report (WRR, 2010).
If there is no personal or institutional author, you use the title for in text citations. When you cite the title of an article you put these words between double quotation marks, in case of book titles you give them in italics. Capitalize these titles. If the title is long, shorten it.
("Understanding Sensory Memory", 2018)
(Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 2014)
If you cite the same publication several times within one paragraph, you can omit the year in the subsequent citations unless this leads to confusion with another publication. For example: Candor and Blunt (2018) point out . . . . This implies according to Candor and Blunt that honesty must be seen as an important condition.
When you cite more than one publication of the same author(s) within the same parentheses, the order is chronological (from old to new):
In further investigations (Holmes & Watson, 2011, 2020) it was shown that . . .
When you cite more than one publication of different authors within the same parentheses, follow the order in which they appear in the reference list (alphabetically by first author):
. . . as is shown in several experiments (Adams & Fries, 2022; Schmidt & Kobler, 2016, 2020; Zen et al., 2021).
Mention initials, surname and provide as exact a date as possible.
(D. A. Forbes, personal communication, March 25, 2021)
Cite personal communications in text only (no entry in the reference list).
You use this way of citing for sources which do not provide recoverable data.
An edited book is a book with editors and chapters (articles) by different authors. You cite as specific as possible: if you use a chapter in an edited book, cite the chapter, not the book as a whole. In text use the author name(s) of the chapter and the year of the book. In the reference list you find in which book the chapter is published.
If possible use and cite the original source. Sometimes however you learned about the work of an author via a secondary source and are not able to consult the original source. In that case you can cite the secondary source. Include the secondary source in the reference list. In the text you name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source:
(Brodie, 2007, as cited in Hargis, 2021, p. 87).
Brodie (2007, as cited in Hargis, 2021, p. 87) pointed out . . .
In the reference list only the publication of Hargis is included.
When you quote you always mention the page where the quotation can be found (and of course author(s) and year). Use quotation marks when you have a short quotation:
He concluded: "Also, even if manipulation may occur during personal conversations, it is not a serious moral wrongness" (Wong, 2022, p. 253).
Wong (2022) concluded: "Also, even if manipulation may occur during personal conversations, it is not a serious moral wrongness" (p. 253).
If you use a quotation of more than 40 words, display it as a freestanding block of text without quotation marks. Start such a block quotation on a new line and indent about a half inch from the left margin.The citation at the end is placed after the final punctuation mark.
Strick et al. (2015) conclude:
We found evidence that conscious thought increases the likelihood of biased memory representations of Black and White people, which in turn increases the likelihood of racially biased evaluative judgments of these people. Applying a period of unconscious thought to race-related decisions appears effective to overcome this problem, as the results suggested that this led to less biased memory representations than immediate decisions or conscious thought. (p. 217)
If the citation is not part of the narrative (as in the example above), the whole citation is placed at the end of the block quotation:
. . . or conscious thought. (Strick et al., 2015, p. 217)
You do not translate a quotation and only the following changes are allowed:
There are two styles of punctuating quotations: