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Citing sources in APA style 7th ed.

Crediting sources and formatting references according to the style of the American Psychological Association (APA). Based on the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the APA.

Chapters in edited books: general form

The formats for references to chapters in edited books are:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of the chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. C. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book (pp. xxx-xxx). Publisher.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of the chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. C. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book (pp. xxx-xxx). Publisher. http://www.xxxxx

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of the chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. C. Editor (Eds.), Title of the book (pp. xxx-xxx).  Publisher.

  • An edited book is a book with chapters written by different authors. For the book as a whole one or more editors are responsible.
  • If there is no author, the title of the chapter or entry is placed in the author position.
  • The editors of the book are preceded by the word "In". After their names you place the abbreviation (Ed.) or (Eds.); please note the position of the initials. Here they are placed before the surname. Normally you mention them after the surname.
  • Following the title of the book you place the page numbers of the chapter or entry in parentheses. These are preceded by pp. (in case the chapter or entry has more than one page) and p. (in case there is only one page). This is different from other forms of using page numbers in APA style where the abbreviations pp. or p. are not used. If there are no page numbers, the chapter or entry title is sufficient.

Chapter in an edited book: printed and electronic form

Chapter in an edited book: printed form

Wade, S. E. (1981). Statistical designs for survey research. In G. H. Stempel III & B. H. Westley (Eds.), Research methods in mass communication (pp. 167-195). Prentice Hall.

Please note: If you use a chapter in an edited book, cite as specifically as possible: cite the chapter not the book as a whole. For the reference above the following citation in text is used: (Wade, 1981, p. 170).


Chapter in an edited book: electronic form (with DOI)

Valls-Ferrer, M., & Mora, J. C. (2014). L2 fluency development in formal instruction and study abroad: The role of initial fluency level and language contact. In C. Pérez-Vidal (Ed.), Language acquisition in study abroad and formal instructional contexts (pp. 111-136). John Benjamins.


Chapter in an edited book: electronic form (no DOI)

Dijkerman, C., & Steenbergen, B. (2017). Motor control and action. In R. Kessels, P. Eling, R. Ponds, J. Spikman, & M. van Zandvoort (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology (pp. 273-292). Boom.

Chapter in an edited book: reprinted from another source

Lippmann, W. (1966). Stereotypes. In  B. Berelson & M. Janowitz (Eds.), Reader in public opinion and communication (2nd ed., pp. 67-75). Free Press; Collier-Macmillan. (Reprinted from Public opinion, pp. 59-70, by W. Lippmann, 1922, Harcourt Brace)

  • In text use the following citation: (Lippmann, 1922/1966, p. 70).

Entries in reference works

Entry in an online reference work

Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Spring 2019 ed.). Stanford University.

  • Because this version is archived, a retrieval date is not needed.

Entry in an online reference work: no personal author

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Heuristic. In dictionary. Retrieved November 3, 2020, from

  • When an online version is continuously updated then use n.d. as the year of publication and include a specific date at Retrieved.

Wikipedia entry

Electoral college. (2020, November 7). In Wikipedia.

  • Cite the archived version on Wikipedia by selecting "View history".
  • If you are a student, ask your professor whether Wikipedia is an appropriate source for you to use in your paper.