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Citing sources in APA style 7th ed.

Crediting sources and formatting references according to the style of the American Psychological Association (APA). Based on the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the APA.

Book references: general form

The general formats of a book reference are:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Book title. Publisher.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Book title. https://xxxxxx

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Book title. https://doi.org/10.xxxxx

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (year). Book title. Publisher.

Editor, A. A., & Editor B. B. (Eds.). (year). Book title. Publisher.

Author, A. A. (with Author, B. B.). (year). Book title. Publisher.

  • In the name of the publisher you can omit unimportant words as Inc., Ltd; do mention the words Books and Press.
  • When the author and the publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the source element.
  • If there is a difference between primary authors and contributors (clearly credited on book cover or title page) use 'with'.
  • Separate multiple publisher names using semicolons, e.g.: American Psychological Association; De Gruyter Mouton.
  • When no publication year is known, note (n.d.) (means: no date).
  • For a chapter in an authored book, create a reference for the whole book.

Books: printed and electronic

Book: print version

Goodman, W. (2022). Toxic positivity: Keeping it real in a world obsessed with being happy. TarcherPerigee.

  • If the work is published by an imprint, use the imprint as the publisher (TarcherPerigee, imprint of Penguin).
     

Electronic version of a printed book

Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000092-000p

 

Republished (translated) book

Freud, S. (2010). The interpretation of dreams: The complete and definitive text (J. Strachey, Ed. & Trans.). Basic Books. (Original work published 1900)

  • In text use the following citation: (Freud, 1900/2010).

 

Limited-circulation book, from electronic database

Thomas, N. (Ed.) (2002). Perspective on the community college: A journey of discovery. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED463808

  • Here you mostly deal with (older) publications, which have been digitized, but are only accessable via databases as JSTOR or ERIC.

Book with corporate author, seventh edition, published by author

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association:The official guide to APA style (7th ed.). .

  • When the author and the publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the source element.

Book without a personal or corporate author

Interpersonal skills. (2019). Stone River eLearning.

Edited book or edited ebook

Duhé, S. (Ed.). (2017). New media and public relations (3rd ed.). Peter Lang.

  • Ed. stands for Editor.
  • Normally you cite a chapter in an edited book, not the book as a whole as is done here. See the next main section.

Schmid, H.-J. (Ed.). (2017). Entrenchment and the psychology of language learning: How we reorganize and adapt linguistic knowledge. American Psychological Association; De Gruyter Mouton. https://doi.org/10.1037/15969-000

  • Separate multiple publisher names using semicolons.

Loose-leaf work

There are no specific examples for a loose-leaf work or an article in a loose-leaf work. A reference of a loose-leaf work as a whole, you can best deduce from examples of books. A reference of an article in a loose-leaf work you can best deduce from the examples of chapters in an edited book.

Reports

Format references to reports as you would a book. Often reports have a report number. This is mentioned in parentheses after the title.

Government report, corporate author

National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/life-after-treatment.pdf

 

Report from a university

Betkó, J. G., Spierings, N., Gesthuizen, M. J. W., & Scheepers, P. L. H. (2020). Rapportage experiment Participatiewet gemeente Nijmegen. Radboud Social Cultural Research, Afdeling Sociologie, Radboud Universiteit. https://shorturl.at/boHUX