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Elements of CRAAP
Currency: timeliness of the information
- When was it written, published, and/or last revised?
- Are you looking at the most recent version?
- If applicable, do all the links work?
Relevance: importance of the information for your needs
- Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
- What is the intended audience?
- Does it provide evidence or support your ideas?
- Does it add anything to your work in comparison to other sources?
- Would you be comfortable citing this source in your research paper?
Authority: source of the information
- What are the author's qualifications? What are those of the publishing party?
- Who produced the information or what organization are the author(s) affiliated with?
- Is there contact information, such as a publisher or email adress?
- If the material is protected by copyright, is the name of the copyright holder given?
Accuracy: reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the content
- Is the factual information verifiable with complete references?
- Is the information supported by evidence?
- Can you verify part of the information by other sources of personal knowledge?
- Has the information been peer-reviewed or refereed?
- Is the information free of grammatical, spelling, and other errors?
Purpose: the reason the information exists
- What is the purpose of the information? e.g entertain, inform, opinion, marketing, etc..
- What is the intent of the author and/or organization? Does it appear objective?
- Does the information acknowledge other perspectives or conflicting information?
- Are there political, religious, ideological, cultural, institutional or personal biases?
Exemplary answers to the elements of CRAAP
- This publication is written 10 years ago
- This news article came out last week
- This version of the book is from 1990, the newest version is from 2015
- The link to this governmental website doesn't work anymore
- The intended audience of this publication is academic reseachers
- This governmental document explains the policy I'm researching
- This is an opinion letter written by a scientist
- This survey provides recent data for my research
- This publication is written by a PhD and a professor in the field
- This website belongs to a governmental organization
- The opinion on this website may be promoted by a company
- If I want to ask a question about this press release I can send an e-mail to this adress
- This article is published in a peer-reviewed journal of a relevant field
- This publication has a complete reference list and proper in-text citations
- The news article is based on a story I cannot verify
- This opinion letter is poorly written
- This is a review article which combines information from other publications
- This opinion article is written by an environmental activist
- The financial expert advises to buy stocks from this company
- This publication is written in relation to another publication of the same author